Christine Milrod Flower

Sex Research

Papers and presentations by Christine Milrod, PhD


2019 “Recommending or Rejecting ‘the Dimple:’ WPATH-Affiliated Medical Professionals’ Experiences and Attitudes toward Gender Confirming Vulvoplasty in Transgender Women.” Milrod, C., Monto, M., & Karasic, D. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. In press.

2019 “Perceptions of Provider Power Among Sex Buyers.” Monto, M. & Milrod, C. Sexualities. DOI: 10.1177/1363460719831977.

2017 “Age is Just a Number: WPATH-Affiliated Surgeons’ Experiences and Attitudes toward Vaginoplasty in Transgender Females under 18 Years of Age in the United States.” Milrod, C. & Karasic, D.  The Journal of Sexual Medicine 2017;14(4):624–634. doi:

2016 “Older Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in the United States.” Milrod, C. & Monto, M. Archives of Sexual Behavior. doi: 10.1007/s10508-016-0733-3.

2016 “Condom Use, Sexual Risk, and Self-reported STI in a Sample of Older Male Clients of Heterosexual Prostitution in the United States.” Milrod, C. & Monto, M. American Journal of Men’s Health. doi:10.1177/1557988315623990.

2014 “How Young is Too Young: Ethical Concerns in Genital Surgery of the Transgender MTF Adolescent.” Milrod, C. The Journal of Sexual Medicine 2014;11(2):338-346. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12387.

2013  “Ordinary or Peculiar Men? Comparing the Customers of Prostitutes with Nationally-representative Samples of Men.” Monto, M. & Milrod, C. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. doi: 10.1177/0306624X13480487.

2012 “The Hobbyist and the Girlfriend Experience: Behaviors and Preferences of Male Customers of Internet Sexual Service Providers.” Milrod, C. & Monto, M. Deviant Behavior 33(10) 792-810. doi:  10.1080/01639625.2012.707502.

2012 “The Intimacy Prism: Emotion Management Among the Clients of Escorts.” Milrod, C. & Weitzer, R. Men and Masculinites 15(5) 447-467 . doi: 10.1177/1097184X12452148.


2014 Kimmel, M., Milrod., C. & Kennedy, A. “Cultural Encyclopedia of the Penis.” AltaMira Press, a division of Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, MD. ISBN-13: 978-0759123120.


2019 Milrod, C. & Monto, M. Prostitution and Sex Work in an Online Context. In Thomas J. Holt & Adam Bossler (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of  International Cybercrime and Cyberdeviance. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK. In press.

2016 Milrod, C. On the Erotic Highway: A Participant-Observer Approach to Researching Users of a Prostitute Review Website. In Thomas J. Holt, (Ed.), Crime On-Line (3rd Edition). Carolina Academic Press, Durham, NC. ISBN: 978-1-61163-677-2 • LCCN 2015044378.


2010 “The Internet Hobbyist: Demographics and Sexual Behaviors of Male Clients of Internet Sexual Service Providers.” Unpublished dissertation. Cited in Weitzer, R. (2011). Legalizing prostitution: From Illicit Vice to Lawful Business. New York: New York University Press.

2008 “Sexual Attitudes and Experiences of 100 Internet-based Independent Sexual Service Providers.” Pilot research project.

2007 “Is the Association of Male-To-Female Transsexualism With a 46,XYY Chromosomal Pattern More Than Accidental?” Gooren, L., Milrod, C. & Giltay, E. Submitted to Behavior Genetics, April 2008. Case study.

1997 “Issues of Countertransference in Therapy With Transgender Clients.””

1996 “Ethical Concerns in Therapy with Transgender Clients.” Milrod, C. The California Therapist, 8(5), pp. 48-50.


2019 American College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) 59th Annual Health Law and Legal Medicine Meeting, Los Angeles, CA

2018 Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality (SSSS) International Annual Meeting, Montréal, Canada

2018 World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) Bi-annual Symposium, Buenos Aires, Argentina

2017 Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality (SSSS) National Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA

2017 World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) USPATH Inaugural Scientific Conference, Los Angeles, CA

2016 Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality (SSSS) National Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ (poster)

2015 Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality (SSSS) National Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, NM

2015 Pacific Sociological Association (PSA) Annual Meeting, Long Beach, CA

2014 World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) Bi-annual Symposium, Bangkok, Thailand

2012 American Sociological Association (ASA) Annual Meeting, Denver, CO

2011 Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality (SSSS) Eastern Region Meeting, Philadelphia, PA

2011 Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality (SSSS) Western Region Meeting, San Francisco, CA

2010 Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality (SSSS) National Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV

2010 Seventh Annual International Conference on Human Trafficking, Prostitution and Sex Work, University of Toledo, Ohio

2010 Desiree Alliance Conference, Las Vegas, NV

Alliant University, Los Angeles (formerly CSPP)

Antioch University, Los Angeles

Argosy University, Irvine, CA

Cerritos College, Cerritos, CA

George Washington University, Washington DC

Institute for the Advanced Study of Human Sexuality, San Francisco, CA

Los Angeles Children’s Hospital, Hollywood, CA

Los Angeles LGBT Center, Hollywood, CA

Malmo University, Sweden

Northrop Grumman, Los Angeles

Pace University, New York

Phillips Graduate Institute, Los Angeles

Sears, Inc., Los Angeles

SUNY Stony Brook, New York

Brief review essays by Christine Milrod, PhD:

“Untangling the web of sex addiction”

“Is there controversy over differences in erotic arousal between males and females?”

“What is the relationship between alcohol and sex? Exploring the physiological, psychological, social and sexological aspects of alcohol and sexual activity”

“Essential factors in sex therapy for heterosexual couples who are experiencing sexual difficulties: Comparing the work of Hartman and Fithian, Masters and Johnson, Jack Morin, and David Schnarch”

“Toward a sexological paradigm of childhood sexuality”

“What type of sex education should be given to children at the following stages of development: Age three, age six and age ten?”

“What are the differences between biologic sex, gender role, gender identity, and sexual orientation?”

“Can commercial films help change negative attitudes toward homosexuality?”

“Cross-cultural traditions and mating practices described in classical anthropological research”

“Notes on the sexological writings of Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Magnus Hirschfeld and Havelock Ellis”